General definition of heart disease

Heart disease is a condition in which the heart is damaged. The very form of the violation can be different. There are abnormalities in the blood vessels of the heart, heart rhythm, heart valves, or birth abnormalities. The heart is a muscle divided into four chambers. Upstairs there are two rooms, namely the right and left atrium (foyer). Meanwhile, there are two more rooms below, namely the right and left ventricles (chambers). The spaces between the right and left are separated by a muscle wall (septum), which prevents oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood.

The main function of the heart is to circulate oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. After all organs in the body use oxygen in the blood, the oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart (right atrium) and travels to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. After blood fills the right ventricle, the tricuspid valve closes to prevent blood from returning to the right atrium. Then, when the right ventricle contracts, oxygen-poor blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary valve and pulmonary arteries and into the lungs, where they are filled with oxygen.

The oxygen-rich blood is then carried through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. When the left atrium contracts, blood enters the left ventricle through the mitral valve. After the left ventricle fills with blood, the mitral valve closes to prevent blood from returning to the left atrium. The left ventricle will then contract and blood will flow throughout the body through the aortic valve. This cycle of circulation will continue to repeat itself.

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Types of heart disease

The term “heart disease” includes many heart conditions, including:

  • Coronary artery disease (ischemic heart disease) is a narrowing of the heart arteries.
  • Arrhythmia is a violation of the rhythm of the heart.
  • Congenital heart disease – heart defects from birth.
  • Cardiomyopathy is a violation of the heart muscle.
  • A heart infection is an infection of the heart caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
  • Heart valve disease is a disorder of one or all four heart valves.

Coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the modern world. Roughly 35% of deaths in Indonesia are due to heart disease, even the death rate from coronary heart disease in Southeast Asia reached 1.8 million in 2014. Therefore, it is very important to know the symptoms and causes of coronary heart disease in advance in order to prevent further chronic complications.

Symptoms of coronary heart disease in men are usually different from coronary heart disease in women. Statistics show that coronary heart disease is more common in older people and men than in women of the same age. Coronary artery disease occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries, which narrows the channels, making it impossible to supply the heart with oxygen and blood. This condition results in obstructed blood flow and eventually, the patient develops coronary artery disease. This condition usually leads to complaints of chest pain and ultimately heart attack.

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Here are some of the causes of coronary artery disease that can make heart disease worse.


The habit of smoking cigarettes is the risk that most contribute to the increase in coronary heart disease. The nicotine and carbon monoxide content of cigarette smoke makes the heart work faster than it should. Both of these toxic substances also increase the risk of blood clots in the arteries. What’s more, other chemicals in cigarettes can also damage the lining of the coronary arteries, increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. Smokers are projected to have a 24% higher risk of coronary heart disease than nonsmokers.


Excessive amounts of cholesterol in the blood can cause coronary heart disease. The type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease is the type of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or what is commonly referred to as “bad” cholesterol. This type of cholesterol tends to stick to and build up in the bloodstream of the coronary artery.


Diabetics also have a doubled risk of developing coronary heart disease. This risk stems from the fact that diabetics may have a thicker layer of blood vessels than healthy people. Due to the excessive thickness of the coronary arteries, blood flow can be uneven.

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Blood clots

Thrombosis or blood clots in the coronary arteries block the flow of blood to the heart. Blood clots in coronary arteries usually occur in the same place as atherosclerosis. The presence of blood clots blocks the supply of oxygen to the blood, the longer it increases the risk of coronary heart disease for patients.

Arterial pressure

Too high blood pressure can also increase the risk of coronary heart disease. You are classified as a high blood pressure person if you have a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg. Art. Or more or a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg. Systolic pressure is used as a measure of blood pressure when the heart is contracting or pumping out blood. Diastolic pressure is blood pressure when the heart is relaxed and filled with blood.

Pay attention to the causes of coronary artery disease as mentioned above, consult your doctor regularly so that it can be corrected at an early stage. Trust the AXA Mandiri health care cost solution so that in the event of such a risk you can focus on the treatment process without worrying about costs.