Reproductive health problems

Reproductive health problems in men, women, and adolescents are very important especially those who are still easy. If these reproductive problems are not addressed properly, problems with pregnancy will arise when couples get married and try to have a baby.

Since these reproductive problems cannot be underestimated, you should look carefully at some of the reproductive health issues below.

Reproductive health problems in men.

There are many reproductive health problems in men and almost all affect the physical and psychological sufferers. The following is a complete review of reproductive health problems in men.

Testicular disorders.

This testicular disorder can be inflammation in the testicular channel that supplies sperm when ejaculation occurs. Furthermore, this disorder can also be in the form of varicoceles, torsion, and cancer.

Sperm are not quality.

Sperm that are not qualified cause fertilization does not occur or has been done. The quality of sperm is said to decrease if the number of sperm per milliliter of semen is under 15 million cells. Furthermore irregular shape, movement or motility decreases.

Reverse ejaculation

Reverse or retrograde ejaculation is ejaculation that occurs in the body. The semen that should gush out goes inside and comes mixed with urine in the bladder.

Erectile Problems

Erectile disorders can also be incorporated into reproductive health problems in men. If men experience problems with erections, there is a possibility they cannot have sex properly and the chances of experiencing fertilization will be small.

Certain chronic diseases.

Certain chronic diseases such as diabetes can cause fertility problems in men. This disorder arises because blood sugar levels in the body are quite significant. This increase can trigger disruption in sperm and damage to blood vessels and nerves that trigger erectile disorders.

Reproductive health problems in women.

Women’s reproductive health problems are somewhat more complex because they have many internal organs. Therefore women must be aware of some of the problems below.

Problems due to sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexually transmitted diseases also cause problems in the reproductive tract. This condition arises if this dangerous disease is not cured or is known too late.

Menstrual disorders.

Menstrual disorders such as being late often, stopping for several months, until excessive bleeding also causes reproductive problems in women.

Disorders of the uterus and surrounding areas.

Disorders of the uterus can be in the form of disorders in the muscular layer such as experiencing myoma and also endometriosis. Furthermore, the ovaries can be in the form of ovarian cysts.

Disorders of the outer vagina and cavity.

Disorders of the vagina can occur in the form of bleeding during sex even though you are not menstruating. Also, wounds or infections in the vulva and cavity areas cause reproductive disorders.

Reproductive health problems in adolescents.

Sexually, maybe teenagers can have sex and have children. However, they have not been able to do it, so the reproductive problems are a little different. Here are some adolescent reproductive problems that are often experienced:

Cleanliness of the genitals, especially in adolescent women who have experienced menstruation. They must be taught how to clean the vagina properly.
Problems with masturbation and stimulating the genitals. Teenagers should be told of the side effects of excessive masturbation and rough stimulation of the genitals.

The problem of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. This disease is sometimes ignored if teenagers have tried to have unprotected sex.

Not checking pubic periodically and the changes that occur are considered normal even though they can be dangerous.

How to maintain reproductive health from an early age.

Reproductive organs that are outside are not much like the penis and areas vulva in the vagina. There are more organs inside so checking the problem is rather difficult. Therefore, consider some ways to maintain reproductive health early on:

Check pubic periodically. Checking is done by feeling the outside or inside of women. If there is a lump in the scrotum or there is pain in the vagina, immediately do the examination.

Watch for signs of changes in the genitals.
Perform routine checks related to the presence or absence of sexually transmitted diseases.

Reproductive health problems and pregnancy opportunities

Men and women contribute to the chances of pregnancy that will occur after sexual activity. Pregnancy can fail if men and women experience infertility. In men, the problem of decreased sperm count and decreased motility causes the chances of pregnancy getting smaller.

Problems in women can be in the form of disorders of the uterus in the form of a myoma or endometriosis. This condition can be treated with surgery or using certain drugs. If the problem in the womb is severe, the possibility of pregnancy will be smaller. Therefore, maintaining health from an early age must be done.

Reproductive problems do not stop there, in women, there is a problem in the egg cell. If the ovary cannot produce the ovum during the fertile period, the possibility of pregnancy interruption will be great. So, a detailed examination must be done to make it easier for the doctor to deal with the problem.

Generally, if reproductive health problems related to pregnancy are related to sperm or eggs, the doctor will try to provide drugs to overcome sperm and ovarian quality problems. If the problem is more complex, new pregnancy opportunities can be obtained from surgery or fertilization outside the uterus.

Here is a little review of reproductive health problems in men, women, and adolescents. Of the various reproductive problems above, about which ones have you experienced or still have until now? Hopefully, after knowing the reviews above, you can pay more attention to health issues.

kidney health care

kidney health care

Kidney is an organ in the body that is important to maintain its condition. The kidneys have the function of filtering the blood, filtering and removing wastes such as poisons, excess salt and urea; monitor and control water balance in the body; regulate blood pressure and blood salt level; regulating red blood cells; regulate blood acid-base balance (pH); maintain mineral and electrolyte concentrations; as well as producing an active form of vitamin D.

For kidney function to work well, of course this organ must be treated. How to maintain kidney health is quite easy. Come read more below:


Sufficient fluid needs is important for maintaining kidney health. Quoted from a book entitled Guidelines on Fluid Needs for Workers to Stay Healthy and Productive published by the Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Indonesian Occupational Medicine Specialist Association (PERDOKI), fluid requirements can be calculated by formulating calorie requirements or with body weight.

Calorie requirements: Every 1 kcal of energy needs, 1 ml of water is needed. This means that if the average calorie requirement is 2,000 kcal, we need 2.0 liters of water.

Weight: For every first 10 kilograms of body weight, 1 liter of water is needed. Then for the second 10 kilograms, it takes 500 milliliters of water. The rest, for every kilogram of body weight requires 20 milliliters of water. If you weigh 50 kilograms, then the need is 1 liter (first 10 kilograms) + 500 ml (second 10 kilograms) + 600 ml (remaining 30 kilograms x 20 ml) = 2.1 liters per day.


Overseeing the intake of food that is also important to do to maintain kidney health. Avoid foods that contain synthetic dyes and preservatives. Consuming colored drinks such as tea or coffee is okay. But make sure you balance it by drinking lots of water.


Exercise brings many benefits to the body, including to maintain kidney health. Instead of exercising continuously at one time, it’s better to exercise about 15-30 minutes routinely 3 times a week. Physical activity will help the body become fitter, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and maintain a stable body weight.


When conditions are not very fit, you may be taking supplements, vitamins, or herbal medicines spontaneously. Make sure you don’t consume too much. Consumption of drugs whose dosage is uncertain can endanger the kidneys. If you feel you need medication, consult the problem first with your doctor. Not taking drugs carelessly is one way to maintain kidney health.


For diabetic patients, be sure to obey the doctor’s advice so that blood sugar levels are controlled. Diabetes is one of the biggest problems for kidney health.

According to data from the Indonesian Renal Registry (IRR) in 2010, diabetes accounts for 25 percent of the causes of kidney disease. Every 24 hours, 143 people with diabetes start treatment for kidney failure. Pay attention to the consumption patterns that you live to maintain kidney health.


Cigarettes have long been known as triggers and risk factors for various serious illnesses, including kidney disease. Smoking continuously can damage blood vessels which can also reduce blood flow in the kidneys.

When the kidneys do not get enough blood flow, its function is not optimal. Smoking also increases the risk of high blood pressure and the risk of kidney cancer. Avoid smoking to maintain your kidney health.

Definition of sore throat

Definition of sore throat

What is inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis)?
Inflammation of the throat or pharyngitis is a condition when the back of the throat (pharynx) experiences inflammation. In Indonesia, sore throat is often referred to as heat.

Pharyngitis will make the throat feel uncomfortable. Usually, this condition causes a sensation of pain or heat, which makes it difficult for you to eat and swallow.

Usually, sore throat is one of the common symptoms of several different diseases. It could also, this condition occurs due to other diseases, such as flu, fever, and mononucleosis (glandular fever). This condition will usually subside without medication in less than a week.

How common is sore throat (pharyngitis)?

This condition can affect anyone regardless of age and sex. Everyone can experience strep throat both children, adults, or the elderly. But children between the ages of 5 and 15 tend to have the most problems with this one.

In adults, 10% of their sore throats are caused by infection with streptococcal bacteria. This condition can be overcome by reducing the risk factors. For more information, discuss it with the doctor.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of a sore throat (pharyngitis)

When you experience pharyngitis, you will usually feel an uncomfortable sensation in your throat. Other symptoms that appear usually depend on the cause. As for various common symptoms that most often appear when attacked by sore throat, namely:

  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Joint pain and muscle pain
  • Skin rash
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck

Because the cause can be different, the symptoms that can be caused can also vary. Generally, symptoms of pharyngitis caused by fever, namely:

  • Sneezing
  • Cough
  • Fever with a temperature of 38 degrees Celsius
  • Mild headache

Meanwhile, the symptoms of sore throat caused by flu are:

  • Fatigue
  • Aches
  • Chills
  • Fever with a temperature of more than 38 degrees Celsius


The symptoms of sore throat caused by mononucleosis or glandular fever are:

  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
  • The tonsils swell
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of the spleen
  • Inflammation of the liver

If you feel that the symptoms of strep throat that are experienced interfere with daily activities, immediately consult a doctor. Usually, the doctor will treat your complaint according to the cause.

When should I see a doctor?

Usually, sore throat will heal within one week without the need to take medication. However, if the pain and fever do not heal even after taking medication, consult a doctor immediately.

Immediately bring your child to the doctor to get the right sore throat medication. Especially if the child has a variety of severe symptoms such as:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • There is blood in saliva

For adults, see a doctor immediately if you experience a sore throat with the following symptoms:

  • Severe pain and lasts more than 7 days
  • Pain when swallowing
  • Breathless
  • It’s hard to open your mouth
  • Joint pain
  • Earache
  • Fever is higher than 38 degrees Celsius
  • Blood in saliva
  • A recurring sore throat
  • Lump on the neck
  • Hoarseness that lasts more than 2 weeks

Also, fever that accompanies inflammation should be immediately examined. Because this can be a symptom for more serious conditions, such as:

Peritonsillar abscess

Peritonsillar abscess is swelling accompanied by pus between the palate of the throat and the back of the tonsils (tonsils).


Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis, which is a leaf-shaped valve located behind the base of the tongue. This condition can inhibit breathing if not handled properly.

Mononucleosis infection

Epstein Barr virus infection is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, and sore throat.


What causes sore throat (pharyngitis)?

The most common causes of strep throat are viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria that cause colds and influenza usually make a person experience pharyngitis. Also, various viruses usually cause inflammation in the throat, namely:

  • Mononucleosis (glandular fever)
  • Measles
  • Chickenpox
  • Croup-causing viruses such as RSV parainfluenza, measles, adenovirus, and influenza.

Meanwhile, bacterial infections that can cause sore throats are Streptococcus pyogenes and group A Streptococcus.

In addition to viruses and bacteria, sore throat can also be caused by several things such as:


Allergies in pet dander, mold, dust, and flower pollen can cause you a sore throat. Postnasal drip is the main cause in cases of allergies caused by sore throat.


The stuffy air and heat in a room can make your throat feel rough and itchy, especially in the morning when you wake up. Also, breathing too often through the mouth because of a blocked nose can cause inflammation.

Irritant (chemicals)

Outside air pollution can cause constant throat irritation. Also, indoor air pollution because cigarettes or chemicals can also cause sore throat. Chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol, and eating spicy foods can also make your throat hurt.

Tense muscles in the throat

The muscles in the throat can tighten. This condition usually arises because you often shout, such as at sports, talking loudly, or talking for a long time without pausing.

Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)

GERD is a condition characterized by heartburn or a burning sensation in the chest due to increased stomach acid to the esophagus.

An esophagus also is known as the esophagus is a part of the digestive tract that connects the mouth and stomach. When you experience GERD, the throat usually feels uncomfortable. This condition can trigger pharyngitis.

HIV infection

Pharyngitis and other flu symptoms sometimes appear earlier in someone infected with HIV. Someone who is HIV positive may experience chronic or recurrent sore throats due to infection. This infection is more common because people with HIV have a weak immune system.


Cancer of the throat, tongue, and larynx are often characterized by a sore throat. Other accompanying signs or symptoms are hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, lumps in the neck, and blood in saliva.

Who is at risk for sore throat (pharyngitis)?
Everyone has the possibility of getting a sore throat. But several things make you more vulnerable to this one health problem, namely:


Children and adolescents are more likely to experience pharyngitis. Pharyngitis or sore throat in children is usually caused by bacterial infections.

Cigarette smoke

Smoking and cigarette smoke can irritate your throat to make it inflamed. Not only that, but the use of tobacco products can also increase the risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, and larynx (a ballot box).


If you have allergies to dust, mold or pet hair, your risk of getting pharyngitis is much greater. Because allergies can trigger and make the sore throat more severe than people who do not have allergies.

Chemical irritant exposure

Air pollution produced by burning fossil fuels and household chemicals can irritate the throat. If you live or work in an environment exposed to chemicals, the risk of getting pharyngitis is quite high.

Severe sinus infection

Mucus or mucus produced by the sinuses helps control the temperature and humidity of the air entering the lungs.

This mucus flows into the nose through small channels. However, this can be blocked if the sinus is infected or has inflammation to cause pharyngitis.

Being in a crowded and closed room

Viral and bacterial infections can spread easily in crowded and closed places. For those of you who are often in childcare centers, classrooms, or often travel by airplane, keep your body healthy so you don’t get infected with viruses and bacteria easily.

Weak immune system

You will be more susceptible to infection if your immune system is weak. This weak immune system is usually caused by various diseases such as HIV / AIDS, diabetes, steroid treatment, chemotherapy, lupus, and other serious health problems.

If you are not one of those at risk, it does not mean that you cannot be affected. Always consult the health condition with your doctor if you feel any abnormal changes in your body.

How to stop smoking

Quitting smoking means giving yourself a chance to live healthier and longer. If you intend to stop this bad habit, but still not succeed in one way, don’t worry. There are still many other ways you can try to successfully run the smoking cessation method.

Failure to stop smoking does not keep you forever shackled by cigarettes. It could be the success of how to stop smoking by combining several ways at once. The important thing to remember, stopping smoking is a process that needs to be carried out gradually and requires determination, commitment, and patience.

Try to take a look at the steps below because it might be your solution.

Managing stress

Stress can be one reason someone chooses to smoke. After smoking, someone feels relaxed. Try several ways to relieve tension, such as listening to music, massage, or yoga. In addition, at the beginning of the trial period to stop, avoid as much as possible a stressful situation.

Avoid Triggers

As much as possible avoid factors or habits that can make you return to smoking, such as gathering with fellow smokers, drinking coffee, or drinking liquor. If you are used to smoking after eating, you can look for other ways as a substitute, such as chewing gum or brushing your teeth.

Nicotine-Replacement Therapy / NRT

Stopping nicotine intake generally makes a smoker feel frustrated and often makes them fail to stop smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy can help relieve the frustration or withdrawal symptoms of the drug.
NRT as a way to stop smoking works by releasing low levels of nicotine continuously into the blood vessels. The nicotine element used does not contain tar, carbon monoxide, and other harmful chemicals such as those contained in cigarettes. This procedure helps reduce the body’s desire to return to smoking when the body begins to feel the loss of nicotine intake. NRT media is diverse, such as gum, plaster that is placed on the skin, or tablets, or can be sprayed into the mouth or nose.

Involve Family and Close Friends

Notify relatives and close circle of friends that you are in the process of quitting smoking. Other people’s support can play a role in helping you quit smoking. Those who will remind and help keep the situation more conducive so that goals are more easily achieved.

Behavior Therapy

How to stop smoking through behavioral therapy is a form of counseling that helps you focus on your smoking cessation strategy. This therapy is done by talking to the counselor in a psychotherapy session, but it can also be done in sessions per group. To maximize success, this therapy can be combined with nicotine replacement therapy and / or drugs. This behavioral therapy can not only be done as a way to stop smoking, but also to help overcome mental health and behavioral problems such as stress or depression.

Cleaning the house

Clean the house from the smell of cigarettes and everything that can support you to smoke in large quantities. Wash clothes, sheets, carpets, or curtains that contain the smell of cigarettes. Use air freshener to help eliminate the smell of cigarette smoke.


Exercise can help reduce and divert the desire for nicotine. Once you want to smoke, wear your sports shoes and start doing sports activities, such as running, just walking or swimming. Joining a fitness club with healthy people can also help a lot.

Healthy Diet

How to stop smoking by eating a healthy diet is no less important. While still used to smoking, some people feel less eager to eat because of the effects of nicotine and cigarettes on the taste buds. When quitting smoking, living a healthy diet can be a step to nourish the body and as a reminder to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Think of the Benefits

There are many benefits that can be taken from quitting smoking, such as:

  • Healthier body. Quitting smoking means lowering blood pressure, reducing the risk of heart attack, stroke and cancer.
  • More funds were used to buy cigarettes.
  • The loss of bad breath caused by cigarettes.
  • Brighter and cleaner skin.
  • Families, including children around you, avoid the dangers of passive smoking.
  • Encourage yourself keeping in mind the benefits above.


How to stop smoking through hypnosis is believed to change behavior. When hypnotized, you feel you can be more relaxed, able to concentrate, and want to listen to suggestions for quitting smoking.
Because of their different practices, this one way to stop smoking is difficult to study for effectiveness. But some people claim to have felt the benefits. If you want to try, your doctor may be able to recommend a professional hypnosis therapist.


The use of acupuncture as a way to stop smoking is usually applied to the ears. Although this alternative therapy has not been proven to be scientifically effective, there is no harm in trying it according to the instructions of a licensed therapist.


If the method of stopping smoking above has not been successful, you can take medical steps. Doctors can prescribe drugs that can help reduce the desire to smoke by influencing chemical processes in the brain. This drug also makes smoking no longer satisfying. There are also drugs that can help reduce the effects of nicotine addiction, such as depression and inability to concentrate.

Keep trying

Repeated failures to stop smoking are common conditions. Failure does not mean you cannot escape from cigarettes. Many people can finally stop forever after trying several times.
If it stops immediately it feels difficult, start slowly. As a first step, you can reduce the frequency and number of cigarettes smoked per day as a way to stop smoking. Set weekly targets until finally you can really get rid of the effects of addictive cigarettes. If necessary, you can consult a doctor to get further treatment so that your smoking cessation is more effective.

How to prevent and understand the symptoms of a mild stroke

Symptoms of a mild stroke are advised not to be ignored even if they only last a few minutes and do not cause damage, but this condition can be a warning.
Because one in three of those who have had a light stroke can have a stroke and about half occur within one year.

Mild stroke in medical language is also called transient (momentary) or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). This condition has the same meaning as stroke, which is the presence of blood flow to the brain. Mild stroke occurs because of the presence of cholesterol deposits containing fat, known as plaque (atherosclerosis), in the arteries that deliver oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

A person’s risk of getting a light stroke is higher if:

  • Aged above 55 years.
  • Have had delicate|a light|a gentle} stroke before or have a case history of mild strokes.
  • Having excess weight or obesity.
  • Have smoking habits.
  • Suffering from certain diseases, such as heart rhythm (arrhythmia), diabetes, high cholesterol,
  • hypertension, and sickle cell anemia.

The difference is from a stroke, the blockage is short and usually does not cause permanent damage. But in some cases, this condition can develop into a stroke.

Recognize Symptoms of Mild Stroke.

People who experience mild strokes need to get an examination and medical treatment at the hospital immediately. The following are symptoms of mild strokes that need to be identified:
Paralysis on one side of the body, such as the face, arms, or legs.
The way to talk becomes chaotic, slurred, and unclear.
Confusion or difficulty understanding other people’s words.
Blurred eyesight, or even blindness in one or both eyes.
Tingling or sudden numbness in certain parts of the body.
Dizziness or sudden loss of balance.
Severe headaches for no reason whatsoever arises suddenly.

Prevent Mild Stroke.

Given that gentle strokes have the potential to transform strokes, it is important to prevent them.

Here are some ways to prevent minor strokes that you can do from now on:
1. Reducing high blood pressure.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure is the biggest risk factor that can increase a person’s risk of experiencing a mild stroke. Therefore, keep the blood pressure no more than 120/80 mmHg.
The trick is to eat lots of fruits and vegetables, reduce consumption of salt or salty foods, and avoid foods that contain high cholesterol. Don’t forget to exercise about 30 minutes every day, stop smoking, and multiply the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, such as eggs and fish.

2. Lose weight.
Obesity will increase a personality’s probability of getting a light stroke.
If you have experienced excess weight, it is recommended to lose weight so that the risk of stroke is reduced.

3. Get regular exercise.
Exercise has an important role in losing weight and maintaining stable blood pressure. Some types of exercise, such as walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, or physical exercise at the gym, which is done at least 4-5 times a week can reduce the risk of minor strokes and heart disease.

4. Treating diabetes.
Diabetics with high blood sugar levels in their bodies can experience damage and blockages in blood vessels. If it damages the brain’s blood vessels, the risk of getting a stroke will be higher.
Therefore, control blood sugar levels by maintaining the pattern and portion of meals, regular exercise, and taking medicines that have been prescribed by a doctor.

5. Stop smoking.
Smoking can increase the risk of stroke because it makes your blood thicken and increases the risk of atherosclerosis, which is a buildup of plaque that can clog arteries. That is why quitting smoking is one way to reduce the risk of a mild stroke.
If you experience symptoms of a mild stroke as mentioned above, do not delay to immediately go to the hospital so that this condition can be dealt with as soon as possible by a neurologist. The faster a mild stroke is treated, the risk of this disease developing into a stroke will be lower.

Definition and Function of Ptialine Enzymes, Complete

Ptialine enzymes are enzymes found in saliva. Besides being involved in the digestive process in the mouth, the pipeline enzyme is also believed to be an indicator to show chronic stress and cancer.

Ptialine enzymes are included in the class of amylase enzymes which are responsible for breaking down starch or carbohydrates into sugar. This breakdown process occurs through biochemical processes to produce oligosaccharide and maltose sugars. This sugar will then be used as a source of energy for the body.

Function of Ptialine Enzymes

Enzymes belonging to this digestive enzyme have many functions. Some of them are:

1. Supports the digestive process

One of the most common components in saliva is the pipeline enzyme. Saliva is likened to a home for ptyalin which is in charge of facilitating the digestive process.

The presence of this enzyme also allows starch in food to be digested. If the production of the pipeline enzyme is disrupted, then the nutrients in food and drinks cannot be absorbed properly by the intestine.

2. Become an indicator of stress

Based on the results of several studies, it is known that stressful and stressful situations can increase the production of amylase and ptyalin enzymes in the body.

Compared to people who do not experience stress, people who are under psychological stress or stress appear to produce a much higher pipeline enzyme. Conversely, if someone can calm down after facing stress, the production of ptyalin in his body will decrease.

It is not yet clear why stress can cause an increase in the pipeline enzyme, but this is thought to be due to an increase in stress hormones, cortisol, and adrenaline.

3. Being an indicator of cancer

According to one study, the amount of pipeline enzymes in cancer patients is higher than in healthy people. This is thought to be related to the inflammatory response in the body to fight cancer cells.

However, the results of these studies have not been able to ascertain whether the examination of pipeline enzymes and amylase can be one way to diagnose cancer. Until now, the tests used to diagnose cancer are still biopsies, blood tests, X-rays, MRIs, or CT scans.

The benefits of the pipeline enzyme that has been proven are digestive enzymes that function to digest carbohydrates. While the benefits of the enzyme ptyalin as a determinant of stress and cancer still need to be studied further.

What is bowel inflammation?

Inflammatory bowel disease or inflammation of the intestine is inflammation of the digestive tract which is characterized by irritation to injury. Inflammation of the intestine can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

Inflammation of the intestine can occur at any age but is more often found at the age of 15-30 years. The exact cause of intestinal inflammation is unknown, but it is thought to be related to an impaired immune system.

Inflammation of the intestine or inflammatory bowel disease consists of 2 types of diseases, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis is chronic inflammation in the deepest layer of the large intestine or colon, while Crohn’s disease is an inflammation that can occur in the entire digestive system, starting from the mouth to the anus.

Symptoms of Bowel Inflammation

Symptoms of inflammatory bowel varies, depending on the location of inflammation in the digestive tract. These symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain or stomach cramps
  • Bloated
  • Diarrhea
  • Eating tastes are reduced
  • Weight loss
  • Bloody bowel ( hematochezia )

In addition to the intestine, inflammation can also occur outside the digestive system, such as in the eyes, skin, or joints ( arthritis ). Especially for patients with Crohn’s disease, canker sores or wounds can appear in the genital area.

Bloody bowel due to inflammation of the intestines can also cause anemia or lack of blood, which causes complaints easily tired and pale.

Causes and Risk Factors for Bowel Inflammation.

Until now, the cause of intestinal inflammation is unknown, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune system response called autoimmune. The immune system functions against bacterial or viral infections. But in autoimmune patients, the resistance effort attacks the body’s tissues, which in this case is the intestine.

Besides autoimmune, a person is more at risk of developing intestinal inflammation due to the following:

  • Have smoking habits.
  • Live near industrial estates.
  • Frequently consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Under the age of 35 years.

When viewed by sex, Crohn’s disease is more experienced by women, while ulcerative colitis affects men more.

Diagnosis of Intestinal Inflammation.

Inflammation of the intestine is determined after the doctor knows the symptoms in the patient, performs a physical examination, and carries out a series of supports which include:

Fecal examination.

This examination is done to detect infection and the presence of blood in the stool that cannot be seen in plain view.

Endoscopy and binoculars.

This endoscope is done to see the lining of the intestinal cavity using a special device equipped with a camera. Tools can be inserted through the anus or mouth

Blood test

This test aims to determine whether the patient has anemia or infection.

Imaging test

X-rays, abdominal ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI are performed if other things are suspected to cause symptoms.

Treatment of Bowel Inflammation

Treatment is done to relieve symptoms that appear and prevent the recurrence of symptoms. To relieve mild symptoms, several lifestyle changes can be made, namely:

Change the type of food and drink

Patients need to avoid milk, alcohol, caffeine and spicy foods because they can cause diarrhea complaints. Also, limit the consumption of fatty foods and multiply fibrous foods.

Stop smoking

Smoking habits can worsen intestinal inflammation, especially in Crohn’s disease.

Exercise regularly

Exercising regularly can help restore normal bowel function and also reduce stress.
For more serious conditions, doctors can provide medicines to suppress inflammatory responses, including:


Corticosteroids are usually given first to relieve inflammation in the digestive tract.

Immunosuppressive drugs

This drug serves to inhibit the body’s immune system from attacking the intestine and causing inflammation. Examples of this type of drug are cyclosporine, methotrexate, ustekinumab, and infliximab.


This drug is given in addition to infection. Antibiotics that can be used are ciprofloxacin or metronidazole.

Antidiarrheal medication

One of the drugs used to relieve diarrhea is loperamide.


This drug is given to treat abdominal pain. Examples of these drugs are ibuprofen and paracetamol.

Iron supplements

This drug is given for cases of chronic intestinal bleeding that can cause iron-deficiency anemia.

Calcium and vitamin D supplements

This supplement is given to patients with Crohn’s disease because of the risk of osteoporosis.

If lifestyle changes and medications cannot overcome complaints of intestinal inflammation, the doctor will advise patients to undergo surgery. The surgery is carried out according to the type of intestinal inflammation that is experienced, namely:

Surgery for ulcerative colitis

Surgery that can be done for ulcerative colitis is to remove the entire large intestine (proctocolectomy) so that the remaining food is directly from the small intestine to the anus. Sometimes the small intestine cannot be connected to the anus, so a special hole is made in the abdomen (stoma) to remove feces.

Surgery for Crohn’s disease

The main goal of surgery is to remove the damaged part of the digestive tract, close the abnormal channel (fistula) if it forms, or remove pus. Until now, there have been no treatment measures that can cure intestinal inflammation, other than through surgery.

Complications of Bowel Inflammation

If not treated properly, inflammation of the intestine can cause several dangerous complications. Complications that can arise include:

  • Dehydration
  • Bowel obstruction
  • The formation of abnormal channels (fistulas)
  • Blood clots in intestinal blood vessels
  • Megacolon
  • Colon cancer.

READ MORE >>> Prostate Cancer

How to Maintain Heart Health

Cardiovascular disease is the largest non-infectious disease that causes death in almost all parts of the world. Applying a healthy lifestyle can greatly help prevent heart disease.

Here are 9 healthy habits that you must apply starting today to maintain heart health. All these tips can still be done by people who already have heart disease.

What must be done to prevent heart disease.

Based on WHO data, cardiovascular disease claimed 17.7 million lives every year. Of these total deaths, more than half are caused by coronary heart disease and stroke. Deaths caused by heart disease are expected to continue to increase to 23.3 million by 2030. Here’s how to prevent heart disease from now on.

Pay attention to symptoms that may arise.

Not only for people at risk for heart disease, being aware of any changes in the body basically must be done by everyone just in case.

One easy way to do this is to write changes or sensations of heartburn that arise every time you feel it. For example, difficulty breathing, tightness while lying down or while on the move, swelling of the feet and hands arises, and other symptoms. Tell your doctor if you feel these symptoms.

Exercise routine

Regular exercise can help improve cardiovascular fitness and reduce cholesterol and blood pressure, while maintaining a healthy body weight. Exercise at least 30 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. There is no limit to what types of exercise can and should be done to prevent heart disease. All sports are basically good. You can walk, jog, ride a bicycle, swim, yoga, or even boxing.

If you are not used to exercising, first check with your doctor to see if there are restrictions on what you can or should not do.

Physical activity is not limited to just sports. When you are in the office, schedule a short break to get up, move your feet and hands, and lightly warm to pump your heart. Go to lunch to a place far away by foot, don’t just eat at the desk.

Routinely check tension.

Routinely checking blood pressure every day can prevent heart disease. In general, blood pressure can be considered normal when it shows a number below 120/80 mmHg. When your systolic number (top number) is between 120-139, or if the diastolic number (bottom number) ranges from 80-89, this means you have “prehypertension”.

Although this number cannot be considered hypertension, this is still above the normal rate. The higher the blood pressure level, the more you are at risk of hypertension later on. Hypertension itself makes you at risk of heart attack and stroke.

Use the hypertension medication your doctor prescribes if your blood pressure is higher than it should be. Get to the doctor if your blood pressure changes.

Limit cholesterol intake.

The ideal way to maintain blood pressure is to control your intake of saturated fat and cholesterol always within reasonable limits. If your LDL cholesterol level is more than 200 mg / dL, you should be careful. Bad LDL cholesterol levels that are too high can cause heart problems. If you have had a heart attack, target your LDL to 70 mg / dL or below.

Avoid or limit foods that can increase your blood cholesterol, such as fatty meat, sausages and burger meat, butter, cream, to cakes, biscuits, chocolate, and sweets. In essence, limit the salt, fat, and sugar you eat. Eat lots of fibrous foods and fish.

Sometimes diet and exercise are not enough to reduce cholesterol in some people. Doctors can prescribe cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins for cases like this.

Drink plenty of water.

Diligent drinking water can help maintain heart health.

If you have heart disease, you need to ask your doctor whether you need to limit the amount of fluid you get every day. Keep in mind, not only how much you drink. Other sources of fluids also need to be taken into account, such as ice cream, agar and soup.

If you need to limit fluids, weigh yourself every morning. Rapid weight gain can be a sign that fluid is accumulating in your body.

Expand eating fruits and vegetables.

Foods high in fiber can help reduce cholesterol and blood pressure. Fiber foods also help you manage a healthy body weight. You can get fiber intake from vegetables, fruits, wheat, and nuts.

Avocados, apples, pears and bananas are high in fiber. Meanwhile, broccoli, carrots and spinach are included in vegetables that are high in fiber. Whole wheat, red beans, soybeans, and brown rice are also fiber-rich foods. Low-fat or fat-free milk is also good for health.

You can still eat meat and seafood, but choose lean meat as your animal protein source.

Learn to manage stress.

Stress is a natural thing that happens. The problem is not what causes stress, but how we respond. When we are under pressure, the body produces adrenaline which will make the heart work harder. Blood pressure can increase as a result.

Chronic stress can lead to a heart attack if it is not managed properly. To prevent heart disease triggered by stress, you must be smart in managing emotions. If your stress is felt excessive, confide in someone, both the closest person and professional counselor.

You can also try meditation, yoga, or deep breathing techniques.

Stop smoking.

If you are a smoker, you should start trying to quit smoking. Smoking can increase blood pressure and damage blood vessels. Therefore, quitting smoking and / or avoiding exposure to cigarette smoke can help prevent heart disease.

Take medication regularly (for those who already have heart disease)

Sometimes, lifestyle changes alone are not enough to prevent heart disease. You may need to take blood pressure or cholesterol-lowering medication to reduce the risk of a heart attack. If your doctor has given medicines that you need to consume, you must obey by drinking them regularly according to your doctor’s instructions.

4 Eаѕу Hеаlth аnd Fіtnеѕѕ Tірѕ

The US hаѕ seen аn еnоrmоuѕ increase іn thе mumber оf реорlе considered obese by thе medical community. In fасt mаnу саll it аn obesity еріdеmіс. Tо соmbаt thіѕ we fіnd all ѕоrtѕ of рhаrаmсеutісаl companies selling thе “ԛuісk fіx” pills, роwdеrѕ, and lotions thаt dо nоthіng to actually hеlр реорlе take the fat оff аnd keep іt off.

Of соurѕе thе same could bе ѕаіd of thе diet industry as wеll. Thеrе аrе so many dіffеrеnt diets gоіng аrоund now уоu соuld рісk one a mоnth and in a years tіmе ѕtіll hаvе more tо сhооѕе frоm.

Whаt is truеlу nееdеd аrе ѕоmе sensible proven wеіght lоѕѕ tірѕ thаt реорlе can іmрlеmеnt nо matter whаt thеіr рrеѕеnt рhуѕісаl соndіtіоn is. That ѕаіd lеt’ѕ dіvе right in.

Drіnk mоrе wаtеr.

All tоо оftеn Amеrісаnѕ аrе bоrdеrlіnе dеhуdrаtеd and ѕо thеіr bodies are wоrkіng оn thе water starvation reflex аnd nоt flushing the tоxіnѕ аnd junk оut.

Eat more оftеn.

I bеt уоu thоught I wаѕ gоіng tо ѕау eat lеѕѕ. Whіlе it is truе that to lоѕе wеіght уоu nееd to еаt lеѕѕ саlоrіеѕ thаn you expend…you nееd to eat more оftеn tо gеt thе mеtаbоlіс furnасе stoked up and burnіng rіght. Gеt it оut оf ѕtаrvаtіоn mоdе. So start thе dау оff wіth brеаkfаѕt. Even an instant breakfast drink аnd a ріесе оf fruіt аѕ wе hеаd оut thе door іn thе mоrnіng.

Move mоrе.

Depending оn уоur рhуѕісаl соndіtіоn уоu nееd tо bе mоvіng mоrе. Use thе ѕtаіrѕ rаthеr thаn thе еlеvаtоr, раrk fаrthеr оut from thе оffісе or thе ѕtоrе, gо fоr a wаlk аrоund thе blосk, go dancing, рlау wіth уоur kids. Make it fun. Runnіng іѕ not the only way tо burn mоrе саlоrіеѕ.

Fіnаllу, determine your “Whу”.

Dесіdе why уоu wаnt tо dіѕсаrd fаt. Make your rеаѕоn bіg еnоugh to mоtіvаtе you through thе ѕlumрѕ thаt invariably hарреn.

Personally mу rеаѕоn was tо bе аblе tо live tо ѕее my great grаndkіdѕ grаduаtе соllеgе. My уоungеѕt kids are 4 and 6 now. Besides I wаntеd to get out аnd play wіth them wіthоut being оut of breath all thе tіmе.

Aftеr Cancer Trеаtmеnt: Hеаlth Tірѕ Evеrуоnе Needs To Know

If you or someone you knоw hаѕ a hіѕtоrу оf саnсеr, it is important tо be аwаrе оf thе роtеntіаl hеаlth соnѕеԛuеnсеѕ frоm cancer аnd іtѕ treatment. Frеԛuеntlу, patients аnd families аrе nоt іnfоrmеd оr dо nоt rесаll discussions thаt оссurrеd during the ѕtrеѕѕ-fіllеd dауѕ after diagnosis аbоut ѕuсh роtеntіаl problems аѕ раіn, dерrеѕѕіоn, іnfеrtіlіtу аnd other рhуѕісаl and еmоtіоnаl changes. Rеgаrdlеѕѕ оf whеthеr problems аrе tеmроrаrу or реrmаnеnt, most can bе mаnаgеd.

Tо begin tо аddrеѕѕ the many аnd vаrіеd hеаlth-rеlаtеd nееdѕ of long-term саnсеr ѕurvіvоrѕ, thе Amеrісаn Jоurnаl of Nursing (AJN) rесеntlу rеlеаѕеd a rероrt, bаѕеd оn a Julу 2005 symposium, thаt offers асtіоn strategies аnd rесоmmеndаtіоnѕ.

“Thе lаtе effects оf cancer аnd trеаtmеnt fоr survivors dіаgnоѕеd as аdultѕ rеmаіn poorly dосumеntеd,” ѕаіd Pаmеlа J. Hауlосk, MA, RN, symposium со-dіrесtоr, саnсеr саrе соnѕultаnt аnd dосtоrаl student аt thе Unіvеrѕіtу оf Tеxаѕ Mеdісаl Brаnсh Sсhооl of Nursing in Gаlvеѕtоn, TX. “Yet uр to 75 реrсеnt of ѕurvіvоrѕ hаvе ѕоmе hеаlth deficits rеlаtеd to their cancers аnd thеrаріеѕ. Knowing аbоut роtеntіаl risks and lеаrnіng аnd using rіѕk rеduсtіоn ѕtrаtеgіеѕ are іmроrtаnt steps in ѕurvіvоrѕ’ rесоvеrу.”

Nurses rесоmmеnd thаt саnсеr survivors hееd the fоllоwіng advice:

  1. Inсоrроrаtе regular exercise, ѕtrеѕѕ management, a hеаlthful dіеt, and weight соntrоl аѕ раrt оf a hеаlthу lіfеѕtуlе.
  2. Sсhеdulе rеgulаr health checkups.
  3. Ask your оnсоlоgу tеаm fоr a written ѕummаrу оf your cancer dіаgnоѕіѕ, treatments, tеѕtѕ аnd rесоmmеndеd fоllоw-uр once treatment іѕ соmрlеtе. Create a fоldеr tо оrgаnіzе dіаgnоѕtіс and lаbоrаtоrу rероrtѕ, аnd gіvе іt tо уоur сurrеnt hеаlth care рrоvіdеr tо mаkе a сору fоr his or hеr records.
  4. Aѕk уоur nurѕе оr physician to hеlр уоu аnd your саrеgіvеrѕ learn аbоut possible long-term effects оf your саnсеr thеrару аnd ways tо рrеvеnt оr mіnіmіzе them. Effесtѕ differ from реrѕоn to person; thеrеfоrе, еduсаtіng уоurѕеlf is іmроrtаnt.
  5. Infоrm рhуѕісіаnѕ аnd nurѕеѕ аbоut your рrеvіоuѕ саnсеr hіѕtоrу, trеаtmеnt, current medications and long-term еffесtѕ you may experience, іnсludіng іnfеrtіlіtу, early menopause, indigestion, drу mouth or tаѕtе сhаngеѕ, соnѕtіраtіоn, dіаrrhеа, ѕlеер іѕѕuеѕ, fatigue, dry ѕkіn, mеmоrу lоѕѕ, сhаngеѕ іn thіnkіng, vision or hearing рrоblеmѕ, depression, rеlаtіоnѕhір/ѕеxuаlіtу іѕѕuеѕ, anxiety, соnfіdеnсе issues, pain, tingling, or numbness or ѕwеllіng in thе fingers and toes.
  6. Lооk for rеѕоurсеѕ tо аѕѕіѕt with аnу physical, еmоtіоnаl оr fіnаnсіаl issues thаt you mау еxреrіеnсе.

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